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Infections of neonatal piglets with Cystoisospora suis are responsible for substantial economic losses in pig production. To investigate kinetics of T-cell populations, which are possibly involved in this infection, lymphocytes from blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and the jejunal mucosa of infected and noninfected piglets were investigated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry at five time points during the acute phase of primary infection. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of pattern recognition receptors and immunomodulatory cytokines in the jejunum were investigated. T-cell receptor-γδ+ T cells were found to be increased in the gut mucosa 4 days after infection and were most likely involved in the primary local immune response. Five to eleven days later, cytotoxic T cells peaked in this location, which was preceded by an expansion of this lymphocyte population in the mesenteric lymph nodes. In intestines of infected piglets, mRNA expressions of TLR-2, NOD2 and TNF-α were significantly upregulated, suggesting an involvement in parasite recognition, immune response and possibly also in immunopathology. Taken together, this study identifies cellular and molecular players involved in the early immune responses against C. suis, but their precise role in the pathogenesis and control of this neonatal disease requires further investigation.