Robinia aurata n. g., n. sp. is described from Liza aurata (Mugilidae), the golden grey mullet, from the Ebro Delta, Spanish Mediterranean. The new genus differs from all other hemiurid genera in the combined possession of muscular flanges and a vestigial ecsoma. Within the Bunocotylinae, which currently accommodates 2 genera, Bunocotyle and Saturnius, the new genus exhibits a unique combination of blind caeca, Juel's organ, post-ovarian bulk of the uterus in the hind-body, and tegumental papillae surrounding the oral and ventral sucker apertures. Furthermore, Robinia n. g. differs from both Bunocotyle and Saturnius in the nature of the muscular extensions around the oral sucker, with the shape of a muscular belt in the latter and numerous muscular papillae in the former. The phylogenetic hypothesis for the Bunocotylinae developed from sequence data analyses based on partial lsrDNA and complete ssrDNA combined (22 species) and V4 domain of the ssrRNA gene (37 species) supports the erection of the new genus and confirms its position within the Hemiuroidea. Both molecular analyses confirmed the monophyly of the Hemiuroidea, its division into 2 major clades and the polyphyly of the Derogenidae, as in previous studies, and suggest that the Gonocercinae (with 2 genera, Gonocerca and Hemipera), may require a distinct familial status. Finally, there was poor support for the distinct status of the Lecithasteridae and Hemiuridae, following previous suggestions based on different sequence data sets. A key to genera of the Bunocotylinae is presented.