Calves with naturally acquired Dictyocaulus viviparus infection mount an effective immune response. In the search for protection-inducing antigens, we found that several D. viviparus third-stage larval (L3) and adult ES products carry N-glycans. Deglycosylation of the worm antigens using PNGase F resulted in reduced IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG2 (but not IgM) reactivities in sera of primary infected animals, suggesting that the carbohydrate moieties contained immunodominant epitopes. Challenge infection resulted in increased specific serum antibody levels against ES and L3 in the re-infected and challenge control groups. Testing of sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated a significant increase in IgG1 and IgE (but not IgA or IgG2) reactivity against the deglycosylated antigens in the re-infected group compared with the challenge control group. Sera from calves vaccinated with irradiated larvae showed a strong anti-N-glycan response, but no booster response against the protein backbone after challenge infection, consistent with the absence of a memory response. Together, our results suggest that D. viviparus proteins carry immunodominant N-glycan moieties that elicit a strong but short-lived immune response during infection and after vaccination, whereas the protein backbones effectively induce a memory response which results in a long-lasting, potentially protective immune response in re-infected, but not in vaccinated calves.