Tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1 (TSLC1) is an intercellular adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily. There is little information regarding the developmental expression profiles. In an attempt to clarify the distribution of TSLC1 proteins in mouse embryos tissue by immunohistochemistry, it was found that the TSLC1-specific signals were detected in the tooth germ as early as bud stage. The signals of TSLC1 were in the enamel epithelium at the cap stage, and became restricted to ameloblasts during the transition to and throughout the bell stage. In contrast, the signals for E-cadherin, which is important in odontogenesis, were distributed in all the components of the ectoderm-derived germ at any stage. In addition, E-cadherin preferred to locate on the basal membrane of ameloblasts, whereas TSLC1 preferred the lateral. And in further contrast, all the ameloblastomas examined were positive for E-cadherin (18/18) whereas all but one was negative for TSLC1 (1/18). These results indicate that TSLC1 is a novel interameloblast adhesion molecule that may be downregulated during ameloblastic tumorigenesis.