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A case of lymphoid hyperplasia arising in the large intestine of a 54-year-old woman is described. Barium enema X-ray and colonoscopic examination revealed multiple small polyps in the right side of the colon. Pathological findings from forceps biopsy revealed similar features to a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A right hemicolectomy with mesenteric lymph node dissection was carried out. Histological sectioning demonstrated hypertrophic lymphoid follicles with well-formed germinal centers. Occasionally, lymphocytes infiltrated the crypts, in a way similar to that found in lymphoepithelial lesions, which was suggestive of a MALT lymphoma diagnosis. Cryptitis was also observed in the lamina propria. Immuno-histochemically, proliferating lymphocytes were positive for CD20 (L26) and negative for CD45RO (UCHL-1). Analyses of immunoglobulin gene (IgHJH) rearrangement could not detect any monoclonality in these cells. These findings suggested that the present case should be categorized as lymphoid hyperplasia rather than lymphoma.