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A rare case of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma with polypoid endobronchial growth in a 42-year-old Japanese woman is described. Left upper sleeve lobectomy was performed for the polypoid tumor measuring 2.5 cm in the left major bronchus and the patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Three years later, a recurrent tumor was discovered. Microscopically, this tumor was characterized by a proliferation of oval to spindle-shaped cells arranged in sheets and fascicles and covered by the thin normal bronchial epithelium. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for vimentin, and focally positive for pancytokeratin recognized by AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen. A chimera gene, SYT-SSX1, was detected. Recently, primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is an increasingly recognized clinical entity; however, most of these tumors present as a parenchymal mass. The present case is a unique example of primary synovial sarcoma of endobronchial polypoid type. This case suggests that pulmonary synovial sarcoma might originate from bronchial submucosal stromal tissue.