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There are two histological types of pyogenic granuloma (PG) of the oral cavity: the lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) and non-LCH type. The aim of the present study was to examine and compare the clinical features, etiological factors, diameter of vascular elements and immunohistochemical features of LCH and non-LCH histological types of PG to determine whether they are two distinct entities. Thirty cases of LCH and 26 cases of non-LCH PG were retrieved and retrospectively studied. Clinically, LCH PG occurred more frequently (66.4%) as sessile lesion whereas non-LCH PG occurred as pedunculated (77%). Non-LCH PG was associated more frequently (86.4%) with etiological factors. The lobular area of the LCH PG contained a greater number of blood vessels with small luminal diameter than did the central area of non-LCH PG. In the central area of non-LCH PG a significantly greater number of vessels with perivascular mesenchymal cells non-reactive for α-smooth muscle actin and muscle-specific actin was present than in the lobular area of LCH PG. The differences found in the present study suggest that the two histological types of PG represent distinct entities.