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Composite lymphoma is defined as two or more distinct types of lymphoma in a single anatomical site. Among various combinations, composite B-cell and T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (CBTL) are very infrequent. Herein we describe a 66-year-old female with CBTL presenting with lymphadenopathy, multiple bone lesions and an epidural tumor. Light microscopic examination of a biopsied cervical node revealed a dual population of lymphoid cells: sheets of large cells admixed with medium-sized cells. The large cells expressed B-cell markers and showed immunoglobulin light chain restriction, consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The medium-sized cells were positive for CD20 as well as T-cell markers. Because polymerase chain reaction amplification showed monoclonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor β chain gene, this population was compatible with peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). We therefore made a diagnosis of composite DLBCL and CD20-positive PTCL-NOS. Complete remission was achieved after six cycles of R-CHOP regimen (rituximab, doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone). This is the first report of CD20-positive PTCL-NOS associated with composite lymphoma. Moreover, a literature review of composite DLBCL and PTCL-NOS indicates that this rare clinical entity may be featured by efficacy of systemic chemotherapy in spite of prevalent extranodal lesions.