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SmgGDS is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with the unique ability to activate multiple small GTPases, implicating it in cancer development and progression. Here, we investigated the role of SmgGDS in prostate cancer by studying the expression of SmgGDS in benign and malignant prostatic tissues. We also probed SmgGDS function in three prostate carcinoma cell lines using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SmgGDS levels were elevated in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), prostate carcinoma, and metastatic prostate carcinoma. In addition, expression of SmgGDS positively correlated with that of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a protein believed to promote the development of prostate carcinoma. Reduction of SmgGDS expression in prostate carcinoma cells inhibited proliferation and migration, irrespective of androgen receptor status. These effects were accompanied by a reduction in COX-2 expression and in activity of NF-κB, a known regulator of COX-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that SmgGDS promotes the development and progression of prostate cancer, possibly associated with NF-κB-dependent up-regulation of COX-2. Copyright © 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.