Promyelocytic leukaemia protein links DNA damage response and repair to hepatitis B virus-related hepatocarcinogenesis

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DNA damage response and repair pathways are important barriers to carcinogenesis. Here, we show that promyelocytic leukaemia (PML, also known as TRIM19), involved in sensing DNA damage and executing homologous recombination repair, is down-regulated in non-tumour liver cells surrounding hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NoPMLmutation or deletion was found in HBV-infected liver or HCC cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of liver biopsies from patients with breast or liver cancer and HBV reactivation after chemotherapy revealed PML up-regulation and HBV exacerbation in normal liver tissue in response to DNA damage (functional PML), PML down-regulation in HCC peritumour cells associated with high HBsAg accumulation and low HBV replication activity (suppressive PML), and heterogeneous nuclear PML expression in HCC cells that lost HBV DNA and HBsAg and were non-reactive to DNA damage (dysregulated PML). Loss ofPMLinHBsAg-transgenic mice promoted chromosome breaks in liver cells and accelerated the accumulation of body and liver fat and the development of a liver steatosis–dysplasia–adenoma–carcinoma sequence in an inflammation-independent and male-predominant manner, compared to PML knock-out orHBsAg-transgenic mice during the same time period. These results indicate that PML deficiency facilitates genomic instability and promotes HBsAg-related hepatocarcinogenesis, which also involves androgen and lipid metabolism. These findings uncover a novel PML link between HBV-related tumourigenesis, DNA repair, and metabolism.

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