The discrete nature and distinguishing molecular features of pancreatic intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the gastric type, pyloric gland variant

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Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms (ITPNs) are composed of tubulopapillary glands with high-grade dysplasia in the pancreatic duct. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the gastric type, pyloric gland variant (IPMN-PGs) are composed of tubular glands mimicking pyloric glands with low-grade dysplasia and were formerly called intraductal tubular adenomas. Because of their apparent common tubular morphology, IPMN-PGs and ITPNs could be associated. While the former might progress to the latter, this has not been fully assessed. In this study, we compared the molecular features of ITPNs and IPMN-PGs to determine their association using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 14 ITPNs and 15 IPMN-PGs. Somatic mutations inPIK3CA, GNAS, KRAS, andBRAFwere determined by Sanger sequencing. Expression of phosphorylated AKT was examined by immunohistochemistry. SomaticPIK3CAmutations were found in 3 of 14 ITPNs (21.4%) but in none of the IPMN-PGs (p= 0.0996). In contrast,GNASmutations were found in none of the ITPNs but in 9 of 15 IPMN-PGs (60.0%;p< 0.001).KRASmutations were detected in 1 of 14 ITPNs (7.1%) and 12 of 15 IPMN-PGs (80.0%;p< 0.001).BRAFmutation was found in one ITPN but in none of the IPMN-PGs. Phosphorylated AKT expression in ITPNs was significantly more evident than that in IPMN-PGs (p= 0.0401). These results indicate that ITPNs and IPMN-PGs are molecularly distinct, suggesting that IPMN-PG does not progress to ITPN. Furthermore, the molecular features of IPMN-PGs are confirmed to be identical to those of IPMNs reported elsewhere. These results validate the current World Health Organization system that classifies pancreatic intraductal neoplasms into IPMN and ITPN and confirm that IPMN-PG is not a benign counterpart of ITPN. The term ‘intraductal tubular adenoma’ should be eliminated and replaced with IPMN-PG.

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