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Atrial fibrillation (AF) represents a significant burden on healthcare resources. This study aimed to (i) identify key determinants for treatment choices in AF; (ii) analyze impacts of AF treatment on patient satisfaction and compliance; and (iii) analyze impacts of AF treatment on physician satisfaction and willingness to prescribe.Physicians and their patients with paroxysmal, persistent, and permanent AF were recruited and asked to respond to questionnaires. Patient and physician satisfaction was analyzed by specifying structural models with latent variables, using partial least squares (PLS) to estimate the models.Physician satisfaction with available AF treatment was low (55 ± 1.3; p = 0.1, on a scale of 0–100), but physician willingness to prescribe in AF was high. AF patient satisfaction with current treatment was low (71 ± 1.2; p = 0.1), but despite this, their treatment compliance was rated as high (90 ± 0.9; p = 0.1).The satisfaction with current AF treatment was low in patients with AF. Physician satisfaction with available AF drugs was driven by efficacy. The same appeared to be true for the patients – satisfaction, compliance, and functional ability would most likely increase with a perceived better drug efficacy.