The open abdomen: analysis of risk factors for mortality and delayed fascial closure in 101 patients

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Introduction:The core concepts of damage control and open abdomen in trauma surgery have been expanding for emergent general surgery. Temporary closures allow ease of access to the abdominal cavity for source control.The aim of the current study was to assess the outcomes of patients who underwent open abdomen management for acute abdominal conditions and evaluate risk factors for worse outcomes and inability of fascial closure during the initial hospitalization.Methods:We conducted a retrospective analysis of 101 patients submitted to laparostomy in a single institution from January 2009 to March 2017. The evaluated outcomes were mortality, local morbidity, and rate of primary fascial closure.Results:The most common indications for open abdomen were bowel perforation, bowel ischemia, and necrotizing pancreatitis. Global in-hospital mortality rate was 62.4%. For the 37 patients discharged from the hospital, a definitive abdominal closure was attained in 28.Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that people older than 60 years of age and with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores over 18.5 had higher in-hospital mortality rates. Definitive fascial closure was statistically associated with a lower number of re-interventions and ICU stay.Conclusions:Open abdomen management may be appropriate in these critically ill patients; however, it continues to be associated with significantly high mortality, especially in elder patients and with higher APACHE II scores. Recognition of risk factors for fascia closure failure should promote the investigation for a tailored surgical approach in these patients.

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