Predicting Risk Factors for 30-Day Readmissions Following Discharge From Post-Acute Care

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Abstract

Purpose of Study:

The specific aims of this descriptive study were to (1) examine the relationships between individual-level determinants of health using standard care admission assessments of residents admitted to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) and those residents readmitted to the hospital within 30 days from discharge from the same SNF; (2) identify and describe the risk factors of the residents readmitted to the hospital within 30 days; and (3) use the findings to inform and refine current practice to target the mutable risk factors correlated with 30-day hospital readmission.

Primary Practice Setting:

A 180-bed skilled nursing center in Northeastern Pennsylvania.

Methodology and Sample:

A retrospective paper medical record review of patients discharged from an SNF to community living was conducted to examine the relationship between individual determinants of health behaviors and 30-day hospital readmissions. The study sample (N = 221) included adults 65 years and older who were admitted to the SNF from January to December 2014 for subacute physical rehabilitation following an acute care hospital stay with a discharge plan to community living.

Results:

The 30-day readmission rate was 11%. The results of the logistic regression including diagnosis at readmission showed that the odds of readmission before 30 days were nearly three times greater in patients who had congestive heart failure (p < .02). Patients who were at “very high risk” on the Braden Scale were 20 times more likely to be readmitted before 30 days compared with those at low risk. Age and gender were not predictors. None of the other standard screening assessments for delirium, depression, functional status, and fall risk were predictive of 30-day readmission.

Implications for Case Management Practice:

(1) Care coordination and communication with residents, caregivers, and home health can have an impact on 30-day readmissions post-SNF discharge. (2) Chronic respiratory diseases continue to be a challenge in prevention of hospital readmissions.

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