Negative Attitudes Toward Muslims in The Netherlands: The Role of Symbolic Threat, Stereotypes, and Moral Emotions

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The present study addresses negative attitudes toward Muslims in The Netherlands, and combines ideas from integrated threat theory and socio-functional perspectives on threats and emotions. We proposed a model in which symbolic threat and negative stereotypes predict prejudice, social distance, and political intolerance toward Muslims through moral emotions. Results generally support the model and show that the relations of symbolic threat and stereotypes with prejudice and social distance were mediated by the moral emotions disgust, anger and pity. This was not the case for the relation between symbolic threat and political intolerance. Disgust and pity were strongly related to social distance, whereas anger was more strongly related to political intolerance. These findings confirm the importance of taking into account moral emotions in out-group attitudes.

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