Turkish-Dutch Youths’ Attitude Toward Violence for Defending the In-Group: What Role Does Perceived Parenting Play?

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Abstract

This study examines a factor that has thus far received little attention in research on attitudes toward violent in-group defense, namely, the role of perceived parental ethnic socialization. We hypothesized that perceived parental ethnic socialization (i.e., cultural socialization, egalitarianism, bias/mistrust) affects attitudes toward violence in defense of the in-group by others as well as willingness to use such violence oneself via its influence on collective identity factors (in-group connectedness, collective deprivation, religious superiority, connectedness with mainstream society). We analyzed a sample of children of Turkish Muslim migrants in the Netherlands. The data came from a survey conducted among pupils at 7 secondary schools (age 14–18, N = 133). Results show that perceived parental ethnic socialization has an indirect effect on attitudes toward and willingness to use a violent in-group defense that runs via the collective identity factors. Perceived parental socialization that emphasizes equality is related to less willingness to use violent in-group defense. Perceived parental messages of mistrust of the other and preparation for bias were associated with a more positive attitude toward violent in-group defense by others and toward willingness to use such violence. Perceived cultural socialization correlates positively with attitude toward violent in-group defense by others and willingness to use violent in-group defense. The total size of the indirect effects of perceived parental ethnic socialization was modest. We did not find a direct effect of perceived parental socialization.

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