Multiparametric MRI for detection of radiorecurrent prostate cancer: added value of apparent diffusion coefficient maps and dynamic contrast-enhanced images

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) is increasingly advocated for prostate cancer detection. There are limited reports of its use in the setting of radiorecurrent disease. Our aim was to assess mp-MRI for detection of radiorecurrent prostate cancer and examine the added value of its functional sequences.

METHODS:

Thirty-seven men with mean age of 69.7 (interquartile range, 66-74) with biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy underwent mp-MRI (T2-weighted, high b-value, multi-b-value apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging); then transperineal systematic template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy. Using a locked sequential read paradigm (with the sequence order above), two experienced radiologists independently reported mp-MRI studies using score 1-5. Radiologist scores were matched with TPM histopathology at the hemigland level (n = 74). Accuracy statistics were derived for each reader. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa statistics.

RESULTS:

Receiver-operator characteristic area under curve (AUC) for readers 1 and 2 increased from 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55-0.80) to 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.91) and from 0.67 (95% CI, 0.55-0.80) to 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76-0.93), respectively, between T2-weighted imaging alone and full mp-MRI reads. Addition of ADC maps and DCE imaging to the examination did not significantly improve AUC for either reader (P = 0.08 and 0.47 after adding ADC, P = 0.90 and 0.27 after adding DCE imaging) compared with T2+high b-value review. Inter-reader agreement increased from k = 0.39 to k = 0.65 between T2 and full mp-MRI review.

CONCLUSIONS:

mp-MRI can detect radiorecurrent prostate cancer. The optimal examination included T2-weighted imaging and high b-value DWI; adding ADC maps and DCE imaging did not significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy.

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