Evolution of multi-parametric MRI quantitative parameters following transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

To determine the evolution of prostatic multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) signal following transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy.

METHODS:

Local ethical permission and informed written consent was obtained from all the participants (n = 14, aged 43–69, mean 64 years). Patients with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (PSA range 2.2–11.7, mean 6.2) and a negative (PIRAD 1–2/5) prebiopsy mp-MRI (pre-contrast T1, T2, diffusion-weighted and dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI) who underwent 10-core TRUS-guided biopsy were recruited for additional mp-MRI examinations performed at 1, 2 and 6 months post biopsy. We quantified mp-MRI peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) normalized T2 signal intensity (nT2-SI); T1 relaxation time (T10); diffusion-weighted MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, maximum enhancement (ME); slope of enhancement (SoE) and area-under-the-contrast-enhancement-curve at 120 s (AUC120). Significant changes in mp-MRI parameters were identified by analysis of variance with Dunnett's post testing.

RESULTS:

Diffuse signal changes were observed post-biopsy throughout the PZ. No significant signal change occurred following biopsy within the TZ. Left and right PZ mean nT2-SI (left PZ: 5.73, 5.16, 4.90 and 5.12; right PZ: 5.80, 5.10, 4.84 and 5.05 at pre-biopsy, 1, 2 and 6 months post biopsy, respectively) and mean T10 (left PZ: 1.02, 0.67, 0.78, 0.85; right PZ: 1.29, 0.64, 0.78, 0.87 at pre-biopsy, 1, 2 and 6 months post biopsy, respectively) were reduced significantly (P<0.05) from pre-biopsy values for up to 6 months post biopsy. Significant changes (P<0.05) of PZ-ME and AUC120 were observed at 1 month but resolved by 2 months post biopsy. PZ ADC did not change significantly following biopsy (P = 0.23–1.0). There was no significant change of any TZ mp-MRI parameter at any time point following biopsy (P = 0.1–1.0).

CONCLUSIONS:

Significant PZ (but not TZ) T2 signal changes persist up to 6 months post biopsy, whereas PZ and TZ ADC is not significantly altered as early as 1 month post biopsy. Caution must be exercised when interpreting T1- and T2-weighted imaging early post biopsy, whereas ADC images are more likely to maintain clinical efficacy.

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