Periprostatic adipose inflammation is associated with high-grade prostate cancer

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BACKGROUND:Obesity, a cause of subclinical inflammation, is associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (PC) and poor outcomes. Whether inflammation occurs in periprostatic white adipose tissue (WAT), and contributes to the negative impact of obesity on PC aggressiveness, is unknown.METHODS:In a single-center, cross-sectional design, men with newly diagnosed PC undergoing radical prostatectomy were eligible for study participation. The primary objective was to examine the prevalence of periprostatic WAT inflammation defined by the presence of crown-like structures (CLS-P) as detected by CD68 immunohistochemistry. Secondary objectives were to explore the clinical and systemic correlates of periprostatic WAT inflammation. Tumor characteristics and host factors including BMI, adipocyte diameter, and circulating levels of lipids, adipokines, and other metabolic factors were measured. Wilcoxon rank-sum, Chi-square, or Fisher's exact tests, and generalized linear regression were used to examine the association between WAT inflammation and tumor and host characteristics.RESULTS:Periprostatic fat was collected from 169 men (median age 62 years; median BMI 28.3). Periprostatic WAT inflammation was identified in 49.7% of patients and associated with higher BMI (P = 0.02), larger adipocyte size (P = 0.004) and Gleason grade groups IV/V tumors (P = 0.02). The relationship between WAT inflammation and high Gleason grade remained significant after adjusting for BMI (P = 0.04). WAT inflammation correlated with higher circulating levels of insulin, triglycerides, and leptin/adiponectin ratio, and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol, compared to those without WAT inflammation (P's < 0.05).CONCLUSION:Periprostatic WAT inflammation is common in this cohort of men with PC and is associated with high-grade PC.

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