Biological activities and chemistry of saponins fromChenopodium quinoaWilld.

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Chenopodium quinoa Willd. is a valuable food source which has gained importance in many countries of the world. The plant contains various bitter-tasting saponins which present an important antinutritional factor. Various triterpene saponins have been reported in C. quinoa including both monodesmosidic and bidesmosidic triterpene saponins of oleanolic acid, hederagenin, phytolaccagenic acid, and serjanic acid as the major aglycones and other aglycones as 3β-hydroxy-23-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3β-hydroxy-27-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3β, 23α, 30β-trihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid. A tridesmosidic saponin of hederagenin has also been reported. Here we review the occurrence, analysis, chemical structures, and biological activity of triterpene saponins of C. quinoa. In particular, the mode of action of the mono- and bidesmosidic triterpene saponins and aglycones are discussed.

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