Enhanced glucotropaeolin production in hairy root cultures of Tropaeolum majus L. by combining elicitation and precursor feeding

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We have studied the effects of precursor amino acids (phenylalanine and cystein), elicitors (salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids, methyl jasmonate, β-aminobutyric acid, yeast extract), PAL-inhibitor (1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid) applied alone or in combination on glucotropaeolin production and myrosinase activity in hairy root cultures of Tropaeolum majus. Short, 24-h treatment, and subsequent transfer of hairy roots to the fresh medium enabled avoiding detrimental effect of studied stimulators on biomass growth. In control cultures the highest glucotropaeolin content, 58.1 ± 6.7 mg g±1 DW, was detected on the 3rd day after transfer of the roots to the fresh medium but glucotropaeolin yield (mg 100 ml−1 culture volume) had been increasing until the 9th day after transfer as a result of continuous biomass growth. Glucotropaeolin content and yield were 2-fold enhanced after treatment with precursor amino acids or PAL-inhibitor alone, but their combination additively led to 4-fold increase in glucotropaeolin production. Among the studied elicitors acetylsalicylic acid induced the highest, 3-fold increase in glucotropaeolin production, it also enhanced myrosinase activity, but to a smaller extend (by about 50%). Acetylsalicylic acid also potentiated induced by precursors, PAL-inhibitor, methyl jasmonate and yeast extract production of glucotropaeolin. The highest, 4.8-fold increase in glucotropaeolin production was found after combined acetylsalicylic acid and precursors treatment. Additive effect of acetylsalicylic acid-combined treatment on myrosinase activity was not detected. The obtained results indicate that amino acid precursors, phenylalanine and cystein, availability may be a limiting factor in the process of stimulation of glucotropaeolin production in T. majus hairy root cultures.

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