|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
This study assessed physiological measures for the study of emotional dysregulation associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two patient groups, the first comprised of individuals with BPD only (n = 16) and the second, individuals with BPD and co-occurring substance-use disorder (SUD; n = 35), and a group of healthy controls (n = 45) were shown standardized pictures of varying valance and arousal levels. Affective modification of startle eye-blink responses, heart rate, facial electromyography (EMG, including corrugator and zygomatic activity), and skin-conductance responses were collected during picture presentation and during a brief recovery period. Startle data during picture presentation indicated a trend toward the expected increase in startle response magnitude to negative stimuli, to be moderated by group status, with patients with BPD-SUD showing a lack of affective modification and the BPD-only group showing similar affective modification to that of controls. Heart-rate data suggested lower reactivity to negative pictures for both patient groups. Differences in facial EMG responses did not provide a clear pattern, and skin-conductance responses were not significantly different between groups. The data did not suggest differences between groups in recovery from exposure to the emotional stimuli. The startle and heart-rate data suggest a possible hyporeactivity to emotional stimuli in BPD.