Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation–Supported Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Following Stage 1 Palliation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome*

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Abstract

Objectives:

To report on survival from a large multicenter cohort of neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation after stage 1 palliation operation.

Design:

Retrospective analysis of data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization data registry (1998 through 2013). We computed the survival to hospital discharge for neonates (age < 30 d) who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after stage 1 palliation and evaluated factors associated with mortality using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Setting:

Multicenter data reported to Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry.

Patients:

Infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome after stage 1 palliation who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Interventions:

None.

Measurements and Main Results:

There were 307 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs in the setting of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 293 neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome following stage 1 palliation operation. The median age at cannulation was 9 days (interquartile range, 5–14 d). Survival to hospital discharge was 36%. In univariate analysis, gestational age, weight, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation duration, presence of air embolism, hemorrhagic complications, renal failure, and pulmonary complications (pulmonary hemorrhage and pneumothorax) were all associated with nonsurvival. In multivariate analysis, lower body weight at cannulation (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.9–8.3), duration of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.9–7.3), and renal failure while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (odds ratio, 2; 95% CI, 1.2–3.5) increased odds of mortality.

Conclusions:

Mortality for neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation after stage 1 palliation is high. Lower body weight, increased duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and renal failure increased mortality.

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