Factors Associated With Mortality in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Pediatric Patients With Acute Kidney Injury*

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Abstract

Objectives:

To analyze the epidemiology of pediatric acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy and identify prognostic factors affecting mortality rates.

Design:

Retrospective analysis.

Setting:

PICU of a tertiary medical center.

Patients:

One hundred-twenty three children diagnosed with acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy.

Interventions:

None.

Measurements and Main Results:

Vasoactive-Inotropic Score, arterial blood gas analysis, blood chemistry at continuous renal replacement therapy initiation, the extent of fluid overload 24 hours prior to continuous renal replacement therapy initiation, Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score at admission, and need for mechanical ventilation during continuous renal replacement therapy were compared in survivors and nonsurvivors. Out of 1,832 patient admissions, 185 patients (10.1%) developed acute kidney injury during the study period. Of these, 158 patients were treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, and finally, 123 patients were enrolled. Of the enrolled patients, 50 patients died, corresponding to a mortality rate of 40.6%. The survivor group and the nonsurvivor group were compared, and the following factors were associated with an increased risk of mortality: higher Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score at admission and Vasoactive-Inotropic Score when initiating continuous renal replacement therapy, increased fluid overload 24 hours before continuous renal replacement therapy initiation, and need for mechanical ventilation during continuous renal replacement therapy. The percentage of fluid overload difference between the survivors and the nonsurvivors was 1.2% ± 2.2% versus 4.1% ± 4.6%, respectively. Acidosis, elevated lactic acid and blood urea nitrogen, and lower serum creatinine level were laboratory parameters associated with increased mortality. On multivariate analysis, Vasoactive-Inotropic Score, need for mechanical ventilation, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine level were statistically significant. (Odds ratio: 1.040, 6.096, 1.032, and 0.643, respectively.)

Conclusions:

A higher Vasoactive-Inotropic Score, need for mechanical ventilation, elevated blood urea nitrogen, and lower creatinine level were associated with increased mortality in pediatric acute kidney injury patients who underwent continuous renal replacement therapy. Lower creatinine levels may be associated with increased mortality in the context of fluid overload, which is correlated with a reduced chance of survival.

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