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Pediatric critical care medicine abstracts presented at North American national academic meetings have not been followed up to determine their publication outcomes. Our objective was to determine the following: 1) the proportion of these presentations that are published in peer-reviewed journals within 5 years; 2) the impact of trainee status on time to and success of publication; and 3) the quality of the research as reflected in the publishing journal’s impact factor.Four years of abstracts (2007–2011) were reviewed from the American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatric Academic Societies, and Society of Critical Care Medicine national meetings. Pediatric critical care medicine abstracts were delineated by the meeting or identified by keyword search. Data included mode of presentation, trainee status of first author, publication status within 5 years based on a PubMed search, trainee position in the journal of publication authorship list, and the impact factor of journal of publication.We evaluated 267 pediatric critical care medicine abstracts, 85–94 from each meeting. Overall, 41% were published, with the highest rate in Pediatric Academic Societies abstracts (54% Pediatric Academic Societies, 38% Society of Critical Care Medicine, and 33% American Academy of Pediatrics; p = 0.011). Mean time to publication was 22 (± 3) months and did not differ by conference or presentation mode. Journal first authorship was retained in 84%. Journal impact factor was highest in Society of Critical Care Medicine abstracts (3.38 Society of Critical Care Medicine, 2.64 Pediatric Academic Societies, and 1.92 American Academy of Pediatrics; p = 0.006). First author trainee status was not associated with publication rate, time to publication, and impact factor. A total of 100% of trainees but only 79% of nontrainees who published retained first authorship.Less than half of pediatric critical care medicine research abstracts presented at North American national academic meetings culminate in articles. Pediatric Academic Societies had the highest publication success rate, and Society of Critical Care Medicine abstracts were published in journals with the highest impact factors. All trainees who were first authors retained that status in the journal publications.