Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 30% of healthcare-associated infections. To date, few studies have addressed pediatric catheter-associated urinary tract infection in PICUs. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in relation to the duration of catheterization in the PICU.Design:
Retrospective cohort study.Setting:
PICU at a tertiary children’s hospital.Patients:
Our study was conducted between April 2012 and June 2015 at Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center in Japan. Children in the PICU with an urethral catheter were included. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection cases were defined according to the National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. The patients’ demographic data and isolated organisms were reviewed. Duration of catheterization and the catheter-associated urinary tract infection occurrence rate were analyzed.Interventions:
None.Measurements and Main Results:
Among 1,890 catheterizations, 23 catheter-associated urinary tract infection cases were identified. The overall occurrence rate was 2.35/1,000 catheter-days. Among the patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 13 were boys. The median age was 11 months (interquartile range, 7–35 mo), and the median duration of catheterization was 7 days (interquartile range, 5–12 d). The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (26.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.6%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.8%). Two species were isolated in each of 11 cases (47.8%). Each additional day of catheterization increased the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.10, and odds ratio adjusted for contact precaution status and surgical procedures was 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01–1.09).Conclusions:
Longer duration of catheterization increased the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection by 5% each day at the PICU. Prompt removal of the urethral catheter is strongly recommended whenever feasible.