In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the catalytic reaction and enzyme conformation, we substituted 53 conserved residues identified by aligning 92 p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase sequences and 19 non-conserved residues selected from crystallographic studies of Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRC14160 p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase with 19 other naturally occurring amino acids, yielding a database of 619 active single mutants. The database contained 365 and 254 active single mutants for 44/53 conserved residues and 19 non-conserved residues, respectively; the data included main activity, sub-activity for NADPH and NADPH reaction specificity. Active mutations were not observed for the G14, Q102, G160, E198, R220, R246, N300, F342 and G387 conserved residues, and only one active mutant was obtained at the G9, G11, G187, D286, Y201, R214 and G295 conserved residues and the S13, E32 and R42 non-conserved residues. Only seven active mutants with higher activity than the wild-type enzyme were observed at conserved residues, and only two were observed at non-conserved residues. The 365 mutants at conserved residues included 64 active mutants with higher NADPH reaction specificity than the wild-type enzyme, and some Y181X single mutants exhibited considerable changes in NADPH reaction specificity. A Y181X/L268G double-mutant database was constructed to computationally analyze the effects of these substitutions on structural conformation and function. These results indicated that some conserved or non-conserved residues are important for structural stability or enzyme function.