The outcome of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is classified as acute or chronic depending on whether platelet count returns to normal. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection increases with age and is independent of gender. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in Chinese children from Northern Taiwan and analyzed the association between H. pylori infection and acute ITP. Our prospective cohort studies found no statistically significant relation between H. pylori infection and acute ITP. There is therefore no indication to screen children with presumed acute ITP for H. pylori infection. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.