infection causes a systemic mycosis originally described in Latin America but with current reports of worldwide distribution. The clinical presentation of paracoccidiodomycosis as an isolated long-bone lesion in children is quite unusual. This article describes a 10-year-old male with a lytic femoral bone lesion caused by P. brasiliensis infection that was first suspected of being of neoplasic etiology. The text also emphasizes the importance of including endemic fungal infections in the differential diagnosis of bone lesions. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;50:1284–1286. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.