The similarities between human and canine osteosarcoma with regard to histology, biological behavior and molecular genetic alterations suggest that the dog provides a supplementary model for the development and preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Counter intuitively, careful examination of the differences between OS in the two species may also be rewarding in terms of increasing our understanding of the pathogenesis of this cancer. This review will discuss the arguments in favor of the “dog model” and outline how the evaluation of treatment strategies in dogs has indicated avenues for improvement of protocols for human patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012; 58: 327–333. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.