Iron Chelation Treatment With Deferasirox Prior to High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation May Reduce the Risk of Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Children With High-Risk Solid Tumors†

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Abstract

Background.

We evaluated whether iron chelation treatment during induction chemotherapy could safely reduce serum iron levels and thereby reduce the frequency of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) during high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) in children with high-risk solid tumors.

Procedure.

Children diagnosed with high-risk solid tumors between August 2008 and July 2009 were enrolled. Deferasirox treatment (25 mg/kg/day) was initiated when serum ferritin levels increased to more than 1,000 ng/ml during induction chemotherapy. Patients who were diagnosed with the same disease between April 2005 and June 2007 and treated in the same way without any iron chelation treatment formed the control group. Efficacy and toxicity of deferasirox treatment were compared between the two groups.

Results.

Eighteen of 20 patients enrolled received deferasirox treatment. Deferasirox treatment was completed as scheduled in 11 (61.1%) of them without dose reduction or discontinuation. The serum ferritin levels prior to HDCT/autoSCT were lower in the deferasirox group than in the control group (median 1,268 ng/ml vs. 1,828 ng/ml, P < 0.001), although there was no difference in the RBC transfusion amount between the two groups. While 7 (17.9%) VODs developed during 39 HDCT/autoSCTs in the control group, there was no VOD during 40 HDCT/autoSCTs in the deferasirox group (P = 0.005). However, renal dysfunction (38.9%) including Fanconi syndrome (16.7%) was a frequently observed adverse effect of deferasirox treatment.

Conclusions.

Deferasirox treatment during induction chemotherapy reduces the frequency of VOD during HDCT/autoSCT. The development of renal dysfunction should be closely monitored during deferasirox treatment. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012; 58: 441–447. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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