We report the epidemiology and characteristics of acute myeloid leukemia and outcomes of its treatment with the AML-BFM 83 protocol at the Mahak Pediatric Cancer Treatment and Research Center, Tehran, Iran, from 2007 to 2012. A positive family history of cancer or leukemia was associated with the risk of relapse (family history of cancer in relapse: n = 11; 61%, P = 0.136, leukemia: n = 7; 39%; P = 0.016). Treatment-related mortality was 19% and associated with underweight patients (n = 5; 62.5%; P = 0.158). Event-free and overall survivals were 36% (SE = 3.5) and 44% (SE = 3.4), respectively. These data suggest a possible relationship between family history and relapse rate. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.