Parents and caregivers of children with cancer are both resilient and deeply affected by the child's cancer. A systematic review of published research since 1995 identified 138 studies of moderate quality indicating that parent distress increases around diagnosis, then returns to normal levels. Post-traumatic symptoms are common. Distress may be impairing for vulnerable parents and may impact a child's coping and adjustment. Moderate quality evidence and expert consensus informed a strong recommendation for parents and caregivers to receive early and ongoing assessment of their mental health needs with access to appropriate interventions facilitated to optimize parent, child, and family well being. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.