Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL)-Like Lymphoma in a Child With Congenital Immunodeficiency

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Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare lymphoma that occurs more frequently in immunocompromised adults and has a poor survival. We report a 9-year-old female with combined immunodeficiency with an Epstein–Barr virus positive/human herpes virus 8 negative PEL-like lymphoma. The treatment with systemic chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, zidovudine, and interferon-α failed to control disease progression. This is the first reported pediatric case of PEL-like lymphoma. Increased diagnostic awareness and more effective treatment strategies are needed for this rare lymphoma.

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