We conducted a phase 1 trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and preliminary activity of cabozantinib in children with refractory or relapsed solid tumors.Methods:
Patients received cabozantinib tablets on a continuous dosing schedule in a rolling-six escalating phase 1 trial design. PK and PD studies were performed.Results:
Forty-one patients, median (range) age 13 (4–18) years, received cabozantinib to achieve a weekly cumulative dose equivalent to 30 (n = 6), 40 (n = 23). or 55 (n = 12) mg/m2/day. At 40 mg/m2/d, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, mucositis, and elevated alanine aminotransferase, lipase, and bilirubin. At 55 mg/m2/d, hypertension, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, headache, fatigue, and proteinuria were DLTs. Frequent non-DLTs included diarrhea, hypothyroidism, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, elevated hepatic transaminases, and proteinuria. In subsequent cycles, DLTs occurred at all dose levels. Across all dose levels, the steady-state exposure and peak cabozantinib concentrations were similar. Four patients experienced a confirmed partial response: medullary thyroid cancer (MTC; n = 2), Wilms tumor, and clear cell sarcoma. Stable disease (>6 cycles) was seen in seven patients (MTC [n = 2], Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, paraganglioma, and ependymoma).Conclusions:
A protocol-defined MTD was not reached; DLTs and dose reductions for toxicity occurred in the first and subsequent cycles at all dose levels. Based on the toxicity profile, pharmacokinetics, and responses, the recommended dose of cabozantinib in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors is 40 mg/m2/day. A phase 2 study of cabozantinib is being conducted.