Outcome of renal tumors registered in Japan Wilms Tumor Study-2 (JWiTS-2): A report from the Japan Children's Cancer Group (JCCG)

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Abstract

Background

Japan Wilms Tumor Study-2 (JWiTS-2) mandated central pathology review for all case registrations. The study aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with unilateral Wilms tumor enrolled on the JWiTS-1 and JWiTS-2 trials.

Procedure

The JWiTS-2 trial (2006–2014), a prospective, single-arm study, required compulsory submission of histologic slides to central pathology, while in the JWiTS-1 trial, such submission was not compulsory. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) versus cases in the JWiTS-1 trial (1996–2005) were statistically evaluated.

Results

Of 277 enrolled patients with primary renal tumors diagnosed by the central pathology review system, 225 patients with unilateral renal tumors were followed up over 9 years. The RFS and OS of Wilms tumor (n = 178) were 90.4% (P = 0.0003) and 96.8% (P = 0.054), respectively, as compared to 74.9% and 89.4% in JWiTS-1. RFS rates of stages I–III Wilms tumor in JWiTS-2 were more than 90%, although the outcome of stage IV Wilms tumor was significantly poorer (RFS: 66.2%) (P = 0.0094). RFS and OS of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK; n = 31) were 82.4% (P = 0.30) and 91.3% (P = 0.42), respectively, as compared to 68.8% and 81.3% in JWiTS-1, and those of rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (RTK; n = 16) were 18.8% (P = 0.88) and 25.0% (P = 0.80), respectively, as compared to 23.5% and 23.5% in JWiTS-1.

Conclusions

RFS and OS for stages I–III Wilms tumor were improved in JWiTS-2 compared to JWiTS-1, whereas outcomes for stage IV Wilms tumor, CCSK, and RTK did not improve.

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