Optimal graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis prevents severe manifestations without excess immunosuppression. Standard prophylaxis includes a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) with low-dose methotrexate. However, single-agent CNI may be sufficient prophylaxis for a defined group of patients. Single-agent CNI has been used for GVHD prophylaxis for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor (MSD) bone marrow transplants (BMTs) in young patients at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia for over 20 years. Here, we describe outcomes using this prophylactic strategy in a recent cohort.Procedure
We performed a single-institution chart review and retrospective analysis of consecutive children undergoing MSD BMT who received single-agent CNI for GVHD prophylaxis between January 2002 and December 2014.Results
Fifty-two children with a median age of 6.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2.5–8.3) and donor age of 6 years (IQR 3–10), with malignant and nonmalignant diseases (n = 35 and 17, respectively) were evaluated. Forty-three (82.6%) received oral prophylaxis with single-agent tacrolimus after initial intravenous therapy. Rates of GVHD were consistent with reported rates on dual prophylaxis: the overall incidence of grades 2–4 acute GVHD was 25.5%, grades 3–4 GVHD 9.8%, and chronic GVHD 10.4%. The cumulative incidence of relapse among children with malignancy was 20% at a median of 237 days (IQR 194–318) post-transplant. Two-year overall survival was 82.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.4–90.6%) and event-free survival was 78.9% (95% CI: 65.1–87.7%). No patient experienced graft failure.Conclusions
Single-agent CNI is a safe, effective approach to GVHD prophylaxis in young patients undergoing HLA-identical sibling BMT. Additionally, single-agent oral tacrolimus is a reasonable alternative to cyclosporine in this population.