Successful treatment of tacrolimus-related pure red cell aplasia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia with rituximab in a pediatric cardiac transplant patient

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Acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are rare complications of immunosuppression in pediatric solid organ transplant patients. We report a 14-month-old female child who developed Coombs positive hemolytic anemia and reticulocytopenia while on tacrolimus after cardiac transplantation. She was successfully treated with rituximab after failing treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Clinicians should consider PRCA differential diagnosis in a patient presenting with reticulocytopenia and hemolysis. In addition, the coexistence of PRCA with AIHA, and the response to therapy with rituximab, supports a common immune-mediated pathogenesis for both disorders.

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