Foot problems and effectiveness of foot care education in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus

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To assess foot care in paediatric and adolescent patients with diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the effectiveness of foot care education given to participants.

Research design and methods

An 8-month prospective study of foot care in children and adolescents with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended diabetes clinics at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, where foot examination was performed at baseline and at follow-up. Patients and parents were given oral and written advice regarding foot care.


Five hundred and fifty-seven patients were examined at baseline, and 312 patients were reviewed at follow-up 3–6 months later. The majority of foot problems found at first assessment were potentially modifiable disorders of skin and nails (68.8%). The remainder (31.2%) were structural musculoskeletal disorders requiring referral to a podiatrist/orthotist. A total of 532 foot problems were recorded at baseline in a cohort of 557 patients and 161 foot problems at follow-up of 312 patients. Significant reduction of modifiable foot problems was seen at follow-up, particularly in those with longer duration of diabetes and in those whose body mass index was higher.


This study highlights the importance of foot examination and foot care advice for children and adolescents with diabetes. Larger prospective studies are required to establish prevalence and to optimize preventive interventions.

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