Dermoscopy for the Pediatric Dermatologist, Part II: Dermoscopy of Genetic Syndromes with Cutaneous Manifestations and Pediatric Vascular Lesions

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Genetic syndromes including basal cell nevus syndrome (BSNS), xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), and epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) predispose the individual to skin cancer. Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) often develop in patients with BCNS and XP. One of the aims of surveillance examination in these patients is to detect BCC while the tumors are still small and easy to manage. Dermoscopy, by allowing the visualization of arborizing vessels, ovoid nests, nonaggregated blue-gray globules, and spoke-wheel and leaf-like structures, can facilitate in the early detection of BCC. Patients with XP are also at risk for developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Dermoscopy can assist in the early detection of these cancers by allowing the observer to visualize focal glomerular vessels, which is a common feature seen in SCC. This feature can also assist in detecting SCC developing in other syndromes such as EV and epidermolysis bullosa (EB). In addition to helping in the detection of BCC and SCC, dermoscopy can also help detect melanoma in individuals with XP and evaluate nevi developing in those with EB. This review will discuss how dermoscopy can be used in the management of patients with BSNS, XP, EV, and EB and will discuss the dermoscopic findings of vascular lesions, including pyogenic granuloma, hemangioma, port-wine stain, and lymphangioma circumscriptum.

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