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Rhabdomyosarcoma arising within a congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is an unusual entity. The patient underwent a lobectomy of his right lower lobe of lung due to a CCAM at the age of two. One year later, he developed a solid embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma at the same location. He received 1-year period chemotherapy and when the tumor reduced to a resectable size, surgical excision was done. The tumor cells appeared more differentiated after chemotherapy. The patient remains disease free to date, 16 months after surgery. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.