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Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is characterized by two pathognomonic translocations, both involving the FOXO1 gene. We describe a case of a 10-year-old child with multiple lytic lesions involving all the vertebral bodies, sternum and femur and a bone marrow biopsy compatible with a small round cell neoplasia, but no evidence of a primary tumor. Interphase FISH analysis with specific probes evidenced a rearrangement involving the FOXO1 gene and RT-PCR identified the PAX7-FOXO1 fusion transcript. These data show a case of ARMS with no evidence of primary tumor presenting the PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:554–557. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.