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Modern WT management consist of ample chemotherapy, nephron-sparing surgery, and, when indicated, radiotherapy. Survivors may develop renal failure or secondary tumors due to anticancer treatment. We analyzed long-term outcome (follow-up >5 years) after bilateral Wilms tumor (BWT) treatment with respect to survival, renal function, and secondary malignancies.From 41 patients (23 females, 28 synchronous tumors) diagnosed with BWT between 1967 and 2007, 25 (18 females, 14 synchronous) with a follow-up >5 years could be included. Of this subgroup, median age at diagnosis was 1.64 years (range 0.27–5.35), and at maximum follow-up 14.99 years (range 5.40–33.99). Data were retrospectively collected and analyzed.One patient (4%) died 17.75 years after diagnosis, five (20%) had renal transplants: 3/5 after bilateral nephrectomy for Denys–Drash syndrome (DDS), and 2/5 for ESRD after an interval of 7 and 18 years, respectively. All transplanted patients remained in CR. Another three patients developed mild renal insufficiency (creatinine levels 1.3, 1.8, and 2.8 mg/100 ml, respectively; N = 0.5–1.2), combined with hypertension in 1; neither of them was transplanted. Sixteen (64%) had normal renal function and were in CR. Long-term renal function appeared significantly better after bilateral nephron sparing surgery (NSS) then after other surgical procedures (P < 0.0001). Seven secondary tumors were found in five (20%) patients, one of whom had a DDS.Long-term 10-year overall survival was 78%. There was significant morbidity (13/25, 52%), in terms of renal failure (8/25, 32%) including renal transplantation (5/25, 20%), and secondary tumors (5/25). These findings necessitate long-term follow-up beyond childhood. Future work should be directed at reducing the harmful effects of treatment, including the increased use of NSS. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011;56:1110–1113. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.