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Establishing the ability of children and adolescents with cancer to complete the NIH-sponsored PROMIS pediatric measures electronically and the preliminary validity estimates of the measures (both full item banks and short forms) in pediatric oncology will contribute to our knowledge of the impact of cancer treatment on these young patients.A total of 203 8- to 17-year olds were administered eight PROMIS pediatric measures in a cross-sectional study design to establish known-group validity. Of the 200 who completed all or most of the items, a slight majority were male (55.5%) and white (54%). Patients were either undergoing treatment for cancer (n = 93) or in survivorship following treatment for cancer (n = 107). Measures were completed using computer interface during an in-person interaction with researchers.Only 3 of 203 participants did not complete the PROMIS pediatric measures. As hypothesized, participants in treatment were significantly different (worse) on parent-reported clinical indicators (blood counts, fatigue, and appetite) and on seven self-reported measures (depression, anxiety, peer relationships, pain interference, fatigue, upper extremity function, and mobility) from participants in survivorship. Females reported worse fatigue, anger, and pain interference than males. Worse patient-reported outcomes for patients in active treatment persisted after adjusting for potential confounding variables.Children and adolescents in treatment for cancer or in survivorship and ranging from 8 to 17 years of age can complete multiple PROMIS pediatric measures using a computer interface during an outpatient clinic visit or inpatient admission. Findings establish known-group validity for PROMIS pediatric measures in pediatric oncology. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013; 60: 402–408. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.