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Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have inaugurated the concepts of tumor-targeted therapy and personalized medicine. A new family of mAbs is currently emerging in the clinic, which target immune cells rather than cancer cells. These immune-targeted therapies have recently demonstrated long-term tumor responses in adults with refractory/relapsing metastatic solid tumors. Pediatric cancers are different from their adult counterparts in terms of histological features and immune infiltrates. However, the same immune checkpoint targets can be expressed within the microenvironment of pediatric tumors. The benefits of immune checkpoint blockade in pediatric cancers are currently under evaluation in early phase clinical trials. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:1317–1325. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.