Repeatedly positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA polymerase chain reaction in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed seroreverting infants

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Three human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)exposed children who had repeatedly positive DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for HIV in ≥:5 samples before seroreversion to HIV-negative status are reported. The children belong to a cohort of 210 infants who were born to HIV-infected mothers and were tested at intervals of 1 to 3 months by HIV viral culture, PCR, and p24 antigen; only the PCR was positive in ≥5 samples in the children reported here. Their clinical features were indistinguishable from other seroreverters. All three children had a transient drop in CD4:CD8 ratio to <1.0. The transiently positive DNA PCR in HIV-exposed infants may indicate either that HIV infection was eliminated by a strong host immune response or that infection was caused by an attenuated/defective strain of virus.

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