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To determine the prevalence and clinical features of Candida species in hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in a neonatal intensive care unit.A retrospective study was conducted of hospital-acquired UTI occurring in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit between January 1, 1989, and June 30, 1995. Hospital-acquired infection was defined as one occurring in an infant who was at least 7 days of age and hospitalized since birth. Urinary tract infection was defined by a urine culture yielding a single organism with >1000 colony-forming units/ml from a suprapubic aspiration or >10 000 colony-forming units/ml via urethral catheterization.Fifty-seven infants had 60 UTI during the study period. Candida spp. were responsible for 25 of 60 (42%) UTI. The median gestational age of infants with candidal UTI was 26 weeks (range, 23 to 37) which was significantly less than that for infants with bacterial UTI, 28 weeks (range, 23 to 40) (P = 0.04). Candidemia was present in 13 of 25 (52%) candidal UTI which was significantly more often than bacteremia with bacterial UTI, 3 of 35 (8%) (odds ratio, 11.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.8 to 47.8). The median age of infection for candidal UTI was 34 days (range, 9 to 228), which was significantly earlier than for bacterial UTI, 79 days (range, 7 to 247) (P = 0.003). Renal pelvis fungus balls were present in 7 of 20 (35%) infants with candidal UTI who had renal ultrasound studies.Candida spp. were the pathogens identified in 42% of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. Candidemia was associated with 52% of candidal UTI and bacteremia with 8% of bacterial UTI. Candidal UTI occurred significantly earlier than bacterial UTI. Renal fungus balls were present in 35% of infants with candidal UTI.