Mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus in Texas


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Abstract

Background.The Pediatric Spectrum of HIV Diseases (PSD) project has been collecting data on HIV-exposed children in Texas since 1989. These data have now been analyzed to describe mother-to-child transmission in Texas and to provide much needed information on the magnitude of the pediatric HIV epidemic in the state.Methods.We examined trends in the numbers of perinatally exposed children and perinatally acquired cases of HIV in the Texas PSD cohort. We calculated transmission rates and relative risks for 656 children born from January, 1995, to July, 1998, that received all or part of the ACTG 076 regimen.Results.Only a small proportion (38%) of pairs of an HIV-infected mother and her HIV-exposed child received the full AIDS Clinical Trial Group 076 (ACTG 076) regimen; only 73% of the mothers received at least some prenatal care. In recent years, however, the numbers of perinatally exposed children and perinatally acquired cases of HIV have decreased in Texas. Univariate analyses showed that a reduction in the vertical transmission of HIV was associated with receipt of a full ACTG 076 regimen, receipt of a partial ACTG 076 regimen and residence in Dallas County.Conclusions.Findings identify a gap in meeting the health care needs of pregnant HIV-infected women and suggest missed opportunities to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. At the same time this study confirms progress in prevention efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Texas.

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