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Pertussis is still a prevalent public health problem, and antibiotic therapy may decrease disease severity and limit communicability. Erythromycin is the recommended antibiotic for treatment and prophylaxis of pertussis; however, side effects of erythromycin limit its usefulness in some patients. Clarithromycin, a newer macrolide, has good in vitro activity against Bordetella pertussis and a better side effect profile.To compare the microbiologic and clinical efficacy and the clinical safety of a 7-day course of clarithromycin vs. a 14-day course of erythromycin in children with pertussis.Prospective, randomized, single blind (investigator), parallel group trial.Children from 1 month to 16 years of age presenting with a clinically defined pertussis syndrome were eligible for the study. After obtaining informed written consent, we randomized patients to receive either clarithromycin (7.5 mg/kg/dose twice a day for 7 days) or erythromycin (13.3 mg/kg/dose three times a day for 14 days). Nasopharyngeal cultures for B. pertussis were performed at enrollment and after end of treatment. Clinical assessments were performed at enrollment, at end of treatment and at a 1-month follow-up visit. Adverse event data were collected throughout the study.The clarithromycin (n = 76) and erythromycin (n = 77) groups were well-matched for age and previous pertussis immunization. Microbiologic eradication and clinical cure rates were 100% (31 of 31) for clarithromycin and 96% (22 of 23) for erythromycin. The clarithromycin group had significantly fewer adverse events [45% (34 of 76) for clarithromycin vs. 62% (48 of 77) for erythromycin;P = 0.035], and compliance with the medication regimen was significantly higher in these patients.A 7-day regimen of clarithromycin and a 14-day course of erythromycin were equally effective for treatment of pertussis. Clarithromycin was better tolerated than conventional erythromycin therapy.