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Aminoglycosides are frequently used in children. The standard daily dosing (SDD) in infants and children is twice or three times daily depending on age. The aim of this paper is to review the current data regarding the safety and effectiveness of once daily dosing (ODD) of gentamicin in children.A Medline search was conducted for comparison studies between ODD and SDD of gentamicin in children in term of pharmacokinetic indices and toxicity.Overall 13 studies describing ODD of gentamicin in children were found suitable for this review. In most studies steady state peak serum gentamicin concentrations were significantly higher in the ODD groups. Steady state trough concentrations >2 μg/ml were documented in 5 to 55% of patients treated with the SDD as compared with 0 to 24% in the ODD groups. The mode of dosing did not affect the volume of distribution; however, the t1/2 was significantly longer in the ODD groups. ODD was found to be cost-saving. In a few studies the efficacy of ODD was similar to that of SDD.These studies suggest that ODD compared with SDD of gentamicin is theoretically more efficacious and has no higher toxicity at 48 to 96 h in neonates and at 3 to 10 days of therapy in older infants and children.